Review of Recommendations for Supplementation of Vitamin D in Children and Adolescents

Darija Vranešić Bender, Dina Ljubas Kelečić, Ana Barišić, Irena Karas, Viktor Domislović, Vesna Oroz, Željko Krznarić

Abstract

The aim of this paper was a comprehensive review of recent guidelines and recommendations for supplementation of vitamin D in children and adolescents. Vitamin D deficiency is commonly reported among healthy infants, children and adolescents in Europe, particularly in certain risk groups, such as breastfed infants of non-compliant parents, darker skin children and adolescents, and those living in the northern hemisphere. Furthermore, a deficiency occurs in children who are rarely exposed to sunlight, obese children, in chronic renal, liver or intestinal diseases and in those using anticonvulsants and systemic glucocorticoids. Guidelines drawn up by ESPGHAN, the American Society of Pediatrics, the Institute of Medicine, Endocrine Society, Vitamin D opinion leaders (EVIDAS) and a global consensus of 11 organizations are concordant in recommending that all infants should receive 400 IU (10 µg) of vitamin D per day, and children after the first year of life (1-18 y) should receive 600 IU (15 µg) per day. Promotion of this public health measure is the duty of pediatricians and other health professionals. There are several guidelines published on prevention and therapy of vitamin D deficiency which will be presented in this review.

Conclusion - There is a high level of concordance in the recommendations presented in selected guidelines and position papers for a daily dosage of vitamin D in infancy, childhood and adolescence.

Keywords

Vitamin D; Recommendations; 25(OH)D; Supplementation; Guidelines

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